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Emigration is the act of leaving one’s home nation or habitation with the intention of settling somewhere else (to permanently leave a country). Immigration, on the other hand, refers to the movement of individuals from one country to another (to permanently move to a country). A migrant is someone who emigrates from one country and immigrates to another. As a result, both emigration and immigration are terms that depict migration, but from opposite perspectives. Demographers look at the variables that cause people to be driven out of one place and drawn to another. There may be a desire to flee bad circumstances such as a lack of land or employment opportunities, or unequal treatment. People are attracted to opportunities that are available elsewhere. Fleeing difficult conditions, becoming a refugee, and seeking asylum in a foreign nation to obtain refugee status may result in permanent emigration. Forced displacement refers to people who are compelled to leave their home nation, such as as a result of forced population transfers or ethnic cleansing threats. In this sense, refugees and asylum seekers are the most marginalized extreme cases of migration, experiencing several obstacles in their trip and attempts to adapt into new environments. Scholars have advocated for cross-sector participation from businesses, non-governmental organizations, educational institutions, and other stakeholders in receiving communities in this regard.

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