Share on PinterestAbdominal pain can be a symptom of ovarian cancer. Most ovarian cancers start in the epithelium, or outer lining, of the ovary.
A person’s family history, age, and reproductive history may all affect their risk of ovarian cancer. Having had one or more full-term pregnancies is associated with a lower risk of ovarian cancer. People who use some types of fertility treatment may have a higher chance of developing borderline cells, but not all studies confirm this. Learn more about carcinoma in situ, or abnormal cells that may become cancerous.
The longer a person uses HRT, the higher the risk. However, the risk appears to fall after treatment stops.
The risk for transgender people
A study from 2017 notes that having the ovaries removed may lower the risk, but the authors urge people to be aware that ovarian cancer remains a possibility. The National LGBT Cancer Network points out that transgender people may have difficulty seeking regular medical help due to concerns about revealing their gender identity.
If a healthcare professional diagnoses ovarian cancer, they will need to determine the stage and grade to decide on a treatment plan. The stage refers to how far cancer has spread. The grade, meanwhile, refers to how abnormal the cancer cells appear. There are over 30 types of ovarian cancer, depending on the type of cell in which they start.
There are three common cell types
They occur in around 85–90% of people with ovarian cancer. In 90% of cases that become cancerous, treatment is effective.
They may also recommend
Only a biopsy can confirm that a person has cancer. A healthcare professional may do this as part of the initial assessment or following surgery to remove a tumor.