Brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks are examples of jewellery or jewelry worn for personal ornamentation. Jewelry can be worn on the body or on the clothes. From a Western perspective, the term refers only to long-lasting ornamentation, such as flowers. Metals such as gold, which is typically paired with gemstones, have been the standard material for jewelry for many centuries, but other materials such as shells and other plant materials can also be utilized. Jewellery is one of the earliest types of archaeological artefact, with 100,000-year-old beads made from Nassarius shells thought to be the oldest known. The most basic forms of jewelry vary by culture, but they are frequently extremely long-lasting; in European cultures, the most common forms of jewelry listed above have persisted since ancient times, whereas other forms, such as nose or ankle adornments, which are important in other cultures, are far less common. Jewellery can be manufactured out of a variety of materials. Gemstones and comparable materials such as amber and coral, precious metals, pearls, and shells have all been utilized extensively, with enamel playing a significant role. Jewellery is seen as a status symbol in most cultures, due to its material features, designs, or symbolic value. From hairpins to toe rings, and even genital jewelry, jewels have been created to adorn practically every bodily part. When compared to other cultures and periods in European culture, the amount worn by adult males in modern European culture is relatively low. The term “jewel” is derived from the word “jewel,” which was anglicized from the Old French “jouel,” and then from the Latin word “jocale,” which means “plaything.” Jewelry is spelled jewelry in British English, Indian English, New Zealand English, Hiberno-English, Australian English, and South African English, but it is spelled jewelry in American English.  In Canadian English, both terms are used, but jewelry has a two-to-one advantage. The comparable term, joaillerie, in French and a few other European languages, may also refer to ornate metalwork in precious metal, such as objets d’art and church goods, rather than only anything worn on the person.
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