In scientific writing and everyday speech, patriotism is frequently confused with nationalism, which is characterized by an exclusive, intolerant, and illogical attachment to one’s nation. As the history of Fascism and Nazism demonstrates, nationalism seen as patriotism can have fatal results. However, this book contends that the vocabulary of patriotism and nationalism must be differentiated. While nationalism cherishes the cultural, religious, and ethnic unity of a people, patriotism is the love of a people’s shared liberty, which gives us the strength to oppose individual injustice. Moreover, patriotism is a reasonable love, as civic virtue is essential to the maintenance of law and order, which is a prerequisite for human liberty. The question we must consider is how to reconcile our individual patriotism with the universal principles of liberty and justice. Using a historical interpretation of patriotism from classical antiquity to contemporary debates, Viroli investigates the possibility of patriotism without nationalism, i.e., one that emphasizes political unity based on the republican commitment to the common good rather than cultural, religious, or ethnic homogeneity.